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DOI: Structure—property relationships in aromatic thioethers featuring aggregation-induced emission: solid-state structures and theoretical analysis M. Saccone, S.
Recent Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids Articles - Elsevier
Riebe, J. Stelzer, C. Daniliuc, J. Voskuhl and M. Search articles by author Marco Saccone. Steffen Riebe. Precise measurement of very small features and objects down to 50 nm in size is also accomplished using the SEM.
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
Backescattered electron images BSE can be used for rapid discrimination of phases in multiphase samples. SEMs equipped with diffracted backscattered electron detectors EBSD can be used to examine microfabric and crystallographic orientation in many materials. There is arguably no other instrument with the breadth of applications in the study of solid materials that compares with the SEM.
The SEM is critical in all fields that require characterization of solid materials. While this contribution is most concerned with geological applications, it is important to note that these applications are a very small subset of the scientific and industrial applications that exist for this instrumentation. Most SEM's are comparatively easy to operate, with user-friendly "intuitive" interfaces.
Many applications require minimal sample preparation. Modern SEMs generate data in digital formats, which are highly portable. Samples must be solid and they must fit into the microscope chamber. Maximum size in horizontal dimensions is usually on the order of 10 cm, vertical dimensions are generally much more limited and rarely exceed 40 mm.
For most instruments samples must be stable in a vacuum on the order of 10 -5 - 10 -6 torr. Samples likely to outgas at low pressures rocks saturated with hydrocarbons, "wet" samples such as coal, organic materials or swelling clays, and samples likely to decrepitate at low pressure are unsuitable for examination in conventional SEM's.
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However, "low vacuum" and "environmental" SEMs also exist, and many of these types of samples can be successfully examined in these specialized instruments. Most SEMs use a solid state x-ray detector EDS , and while these detectors are very fast and easy to utilize, they have relatively poor energy resolution and sensitivity to elements present in low abundances when compared to wavelength dispersive x-ray detectors WDS on most electron probe microanalyzers EPMA. An electrically conductive coating must be applied to electrically insulating samples for study in conventional SEM's, unless the instrument is capable of operation in a low vacuum mode.
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